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Monday, March 29, 2010

Tekanan Darah Tinggi (Hipertensi)

enzimnoni-mengkudu | 9:53 PM |
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. It is classified as either primary (essential) or secondary. About 90-95% of cases are termed "primary hypertension", which refers to high blood pressure for which no medical cause can be found.[1] The remaining 5-10% of cases (Secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart, or endocrine system.[2]

Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure.[3] Moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. Both dietary and lifestyle changes as well as medicines can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications.
Signs and symptoms

Mild to moderate essential hypertension is usually asymptomatic.[9]
[edit] Accelerated hypertension

Accelerated hypertension is associated with headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, nausea, and vomiting symptoms which are collectively referred to as hypertensive encephalopathy. Hypertensive encephalopathy is caused by severe small blood vessel congestion and brain swelling, which is reversible if blood pressure is lowered.[10]
[edit] Children

Some signs and symptoms are especially important in newborns and infants such as failure to thrive, seizures, irritability, lack of energy, and difficulty breathing.[11] In children, hypertension can cause headache, fatigue, blurred vision, nosebleeds, and facial paralysis.[11]
[edit] Secondary hypertension

Some additional signs and symptoms suggest that the hypertension is caused by disorders in hormone regulation. Hypertension combined with obesity distributed on the trunk of the body, accumlated fat on the back of the neck ('buffalo hump'), wide purple marks on the abdomen (abdominal striae), or the recent onset of diabetes suggests that an individual has a hormone disorder known as Cushing's syndrome. Hypertension caused by other hormone disorders such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or growth hormone excess will be accompanied by additional symptoms specific to these disorders. For example, hyperthyrodism can cause weight loss, tremors, heart rate abnormalities, reddening of the palms, and increased sweating.[12] Signs and symptoms associated with growth hormone excess include coarsening of facial features, protrusion of the lower jaw, enlargement of the tongue,[13] excessive hair growth, darkening of the skin color, and excessive sweating.[14]:499. Other hormone disorders like hyperaldosteronism may cause less specific symptoms such as numbness, excessive urination, excessive sweating, electrolyte imbalances and dehydration, and elevated blood alkalinity.[15]
[edit] Pregnancy

Hypertension in pregnant women is known as pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia can progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is the development of protein in the urine, generalized swelling, and severe seizures. Other symptoms indicating that brain function is becoming impaired may precede these seizures such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and vision loss.[16]
[edit] Causes
[edit] Essential hypertension
Main article: Essential hypertension

Essential hypertension is the most prevalent hypertension type, affecting 90-95% of hypertensive patients.[1] Although no direct cause has identified itself, there are many factors such as sedentary lifestyle,[17] stress, visceral obesity, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia),[17] obesity[18] (more than 85% of cases occur in those with a body mass index greater than 25),[19] salt (sodium) sensitivity,[20] alcohol intake,[21] and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of developing hypertension.[22][23] Risk also increases with aging,[24] some inherited genetic mutations,[25] and having a family history of hypertension.[26] An elevation of renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney, is another risk factor,[27] as is sympathetic nervous system overactivity.[28] Insulin resistance which is a component of syndrome X, or the metabolic syndrome is also thought to contribute to hypertension.[27][29] Consuming foods that contain high fructose corn syrup may increase one's risk of developing hypertension.[30] Recent studies have implicated low birth weight as a risk factor for adult essential hypertension.[31]
[edit] Secondary hypertension
Main article: Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension by definition results from an identifiable cause. This type is important to recognize since it's treated differently than essential hypertension, by treating the underlying cause of the elevated blood pressure. Hypertension results compromise or imbalance of the pathophysiological mechanisms, such as the hormone-regulating endocrine system, that regulate blood plasma volume and heart function. Many conditions cause hypertension, some are common and well recognized secondary causes such as Cushing's syndrome,[32] which is a condition where the adrenal glands overproduce the hormone cortisol.[32] In addition, hypertension is caused by other conditions that cause hormone changes such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and adrenal gland cancer. Other common causes of secondary hypertension include kidney disease, obesity/metabolic disorder, pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, the congenital defect known as coarctation of the aorta, and certain prescription and illegal drugs.
[edit] Pathophysiology
Main article: Pathophysiology of hypertension
A diagram explaining factors affecting arterial pressure

Most of the mechanisms associated with secondary hypertension are generally fully understood. However, those associated with essential (primary) hypertension are far less understood. What is known is that cardiac output is raised early in the disease course, with total peripheral resistance (TPR) normal; over time cardiac output drops to normal levels but TPR is increased. Three theories have been proposed to explain this:

* Inability of the kidneys to excrete sodium, resulting in natriuretic factors such as Atrial Natriuretic Factor being secreted to promote salt excretion with the side effect of raising total peripheral resistance.
* An overactive Renin-angiotensin system leads to vasoconstriction and retention of sodium and water. The increase in blood volume leads to hypertension.[33]
* An overactive sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased stress responses.[34]

It is also known that hypertension is highly heritable and polygenic (caused by more than one gene) and a few candidate genes have been postulated in the etiology of this condition.[35]

Recently, work related to the association between essential hypertension and sustained endothelial damage has gained popularity among hypertension scientists. It remains unclear however whether endothelial changes precede the development of hypertension or whether such changes are mainly due to long standing elevated blood pressures.
[edit] Diagnosis

Hypertension is generally diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high blood pressure. Usually this requires three separate sphygmomanometer (see figure) measurements at least one week apart. Initial assessment of the hypertensive patient should include a complete history and physical examination. Exceptionally, if the elevation is extreme, or if symptoms of organ damage are present then the diagnosis may be given and treatment started immediately.

Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been made, physicians will attempt to identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms, if present. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension.[26] Laboratory tests can also be performed to identify possible causes of secondary hypertension, and determine if hypertension has caused damage to the heart, eyes, and kidneys. Additional tests for Diabetes and high cholesterol levels are also usually performed because they are additional risk factors for the development of heart disease require treatment
Causes
[edit] Essential hypertension
Main article: Essential hypertension

Essential hypertension is the most prevalent hypertension type, affecting 90-95% of hypertensive patients.[1] Although no direct cause has identified itself, there are many factors such as sedentary lifestyle,[17] stress, visceral obesity, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia),[17] obesity[18] (more than 85% of cases occur in those with a body mass index greater than 25),[19] salt (sodium) sensitivity,[20] alcohol intake,[21] and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of developing hypertension.[22][23] Risk also increases with aging,[24] some inherited genetic mutations,[25] and having a family history of hypertension.[26] An elevation of renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney, is another risk factor,[27] as is sympathetic nervous system overactivity.[28] Insulin resistance which is a component of syndrome X, or the metabolic syndrome is also thought to contribute to hypertension.[27][29] Consuming foods that contain high fructose corn syrup may increase one's risk of developing hypertension.[30] Recent studies have implicated low birth weight as a risk factor for adult essential hypertension.[31]
[edit] Secondary hypertension
Main article: Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension by definition results from an identifiable cause. This type is important to recognize since it's treated differently than essential hypertension, by treating the underlying cause of the elevated blood pressure. Hypertension results compromise or imbalance of the pathophysiological mechanisms, such as the hormone-regulating endocrine system, that regulate blood plasma volume and heart function. Many conditions cause hypertension, some are common and well recognized secondary causes such as Cushing's syndrome,[32] which is a condition where the adrenal glands overproduce the hormone cortisol.[32] In addition, hypertension is caused by other conditions that cause hormone changes such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and adrenal gland cancer. Other common causes of secondary hypertension include kidney disease, obesity/metabolic disorder, pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, the congenital defect known as coarctation of the aorta, and certain prescription and illegal drugs.
[edit] Pathophysiology
Main article: Pathophysiology of hypertension
A diagram explaining factors affecting arterial pressure

Most of the mechanisms associated with secondary hypertension are generally fully understood. However, those associated with essential (primary) hypertension are far less understood. What is known is that cardiac output is raised early in the disease course, with total peripheral resistance (TPR) normal; over time cardiac output drops to normal levels but TPR is increased. Three theories have been proposed to explain this:

* Inability of the kidneys to excrete sodium, resulting in natriuretic factors such as Atrial Natriuretic Factor being secreted to promote salt excretion with the side effect of raising total peripheral resistance.
* An overactive Renin-angiotensin system leads to vasoconstriction and retention of sodium and water. The increase in blood volume leads to hypertension.[33]
* An overactive sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased stress responses.[34]

It is also known that hypertension is highly heritable and polygenic (caused by more than one gene) and a few candidate genes have been postulated in the etiology of this condition.[35]

Recently, work related to the association between essential hypertension and sustained endothelial damage has gained popularity among hypertension scientists. It remains unclear however whether endothelial changes precede the development of hypertension or whether such changes are mainly due to long standing elevated blood pressures.
[edit] Diagnosis

Hypertension is generally diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high blood pressure. Usually this requires three separate sphygmomanometer (see figure) measurements at least one week apart. Initial assessment of the hypertensive patient should include a complete history and physical examination. Exceptionally, if the elevation is extreme, or if symptoms of organ damage are present then the diagnosis may be given and treatment started immediately.

Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been made, physicians will attempt to identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms, if present. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension.[26] Laboratory tests can also be performed to identify possible causes of secondary hypertension, and determine if hypertension has caused damage to the heart, eyes, and kidneys. Additional tests for Diabetes and high cholesterol levels are also usually performed because they are additional risk factors for the development of heart disease require treatment.[1] Tests typically performed are classified as follows:
System Tests
Renal Microscopic urinalysis, proteinuria, serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and/or creatinine
Endocrine Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone).
Metabolic Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides
Other Hematocrit, electrocardiogram, and Chest X-ray
Sources: Harrison's principles of internal medicine[36] others[37][38][39][40][41][42]

Creatinine (renal function) testing is done to determine if kidney disease is present, which can be either the cause or result of hypertension. In addition, it provides a baseline measurement of kidney function that can be used to monitor for side-effects of certain antihypertensive drugs on kidney function. Additionally, testing of urine samples for protein is used as a secondary indicator of kidney disease. Glucose testing is done to determine if diabetes is present. Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) testing is done to check for evidence of the heart being under strain from high blood pressure. It may also show if there is thickening of the heart muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy) or has experienced a prior minor heart distubance such as a silent heart attack. A chest X-ray may be performed to look for signs of heart enlargement or damage to heart tissue.
Treatment
[edit] Lifestyle modifications

The first line of treatment for hypertension is the same as the recommended preventative lifestyle changes such as the dietary changes, physical exercise, and weight loss, which have all been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in people with hypertension.[52] If hypertension is high enough to justify immediate use of medications, lifestyle changes are still recommended in conjunction with medication. Different programs aimed to reduce psychological stress such as biofeedback, relaxation or meditation are advertised to reduce hypertension. However, in general claims of efficacy are not supported by scientific studies, which have been in general of low quality
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DEFINISI
Tekanan Darah Tinggi (hipertensi) adalah suatu peningkatan tekanan darah di dalam arteri.

Secara umum, hipertensi merupakan suatu keadaan tanpa gejala, dimana tekanan yang abnormal tinggi di dalam arteri menyebabkan meningkatnya resiko terhadap stroke, aneurisma, gagal jantung, serangan jantung dan kerusakan ginjal.

Pada pemeriksaan tekanan darah akan didapat dua angka. Angka yang lebih tinggi diperoleh pada saat jantung berkontraksi (sistolik), angka yang lebih rendah diperoleh pada saat jantung berelaksasi (diastolik).
Tekanan darah ditulis sebagai tekanan sistolik garis miring tekanan diastolik, misalnya 120/80 mmHg, dibaca seratus dua puluh per delapan puluh.
Dikatakan tekanan darah tinggi jika pada saat duduk tekanan sistolik mencapai 140 mmHg atau lebih, atau tekanan diastolik mencapai 90 mmHg atau lebih, atau keduanya.
Pada tekanan darah tinggi, biasanya terjadi kenaikan tekanan sistolik dan diastolik.

Pada hipertensi sistolik terisolasi, tekanan sistolik mencapai 140 mmHg atau lebih, tetapi tekanan diastolik kurang dari 90 mmHg dan tekanan diastolik masih dalam kisaran normal. Hipertensi ini sering ditemukan pada usia lanjut.
Sejalan dengan bertambahnya usia, hampir setiap orang mengalami kenaikan tekanan darah; tekanan sistolik terus meningkat sampai usia 80 tahun dan tekanan diastolik terus meningkat sampai usia 55-60 tahun, kemudian berkurang secara perlahan atau bahkan menurun drastis.

Hipertensi maligna adalah hipertensi yang sangat parah, yang bila tidak diobati, akan menimbulkan kematian dalam waktu 3-6 bulan.
Hipertensi ini jarang terjadi, hanya 1 dari setiap 200 penderita hipertensi.

Tekanan darah dalam kehidupan seseorang bervariasi secara alami. Bayi dan anak-anak secara normal memiliki tekanan darah yang jauh lebih rendah daripada dewasa.
Tekanan darah juga dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas fisik, dimana akan lebih tinggi pada saat melakukan aktivitas dan lebih rendah ketika beristirahat.
Tekanan darah dalam satu hari juga berbeda; paling tinggi di waktu pagi hari dan paling rendah pada saat tidur malam hari.

Klasifikasi Tekanan Darah Pada Dewasa


Kategori Tekanan Darah Sistolik Tekanan Darah Diastolik
Normal Dibawah 130 mmHg Dibawah 85 mmHg
Normal tinggi 130-139 mmHg 85-89 mmHg
Stadium 1
(Hipertensi ringan) 140-159 mmHg 90-99 mmHg
Stadium 2
(Hipertensi sedang) 160-179 mmHg 100-109 mmHg
Stadium 3
(Hipertensi berat) 180-209 mmHg 110-119 mmHg
Stadium 4
(Hipertensi maligna) 210 mmHg atau lebih 120 mmHg atau lebih


PENGENDALIAN TEKANAN DARAH

Meningkatnya tekanan darah di dalam arteri bisa terjadi melalui beberapa cara:

1. Jantung memompa lebih kuat sehingga mengalirkan lebih banyak cairan pada setiap detiknya
2. Arteri besar kehilangan kelenturannya dan menjadi kaku, sehingga mereka tidak dapat mengembang pada saat jantung memompa darah melalui arteri tersebut. Karena itu darah pada setiap denyut jantung dipaksa untuk melalui pembuluh yang sempit daripada biasanya dan menyebabkan naiknya tekanan. Inilah yang terjadi pada usia lanjut, dimana dinding arterinya telah menebal dan kaku karena arteriosklerosis.
Dengan cara yang sama, tekanan darah juga meningkat pada saat terjadi vasokonstriksi, yaitu jika arteri kecil (arteriola) untuk sementara waktu mengkerut karena perangsangan saraf atau hormon di dalam darah.
3. Bertambahnya cairan dalam sirkulasi bisa menyebabkan meningkatnya tekanan darah. Hal ini terjadi jika terdapat kelainan fungsi ginjal sehingga tidak mampu membuang sejumlah garam dan air dari dalam tubuh. Volume darah dalam tubuh meningkat, sehingga tekanan darah juga meningkat.

Sebaliknya, jika:
- aktivitas memompa jantung berkurang
- arteri mengalami pelebaran
- banyak cairan keluar dari sirkulasi
maka tekanan darah akan menurun.

Penyesuaian terhadap faktor-faktor tersebut dilaksanakan oleh perubahan di dalam fungsi ginjal dan sistem saraf otonom (bagian dari sistem saraf yang mengatur berbagai fungsi tubuh secara otomatis).

1. Perubahan fungsi ginjal
Ginjal mengendalikan tekanan darah melalui beberapa cara:
- Jika tekanan darah meningkat, ginjal akan menambah pengeluaran garam dan air, yang akan menyebabkan berkurangnya volume darah dan mengembalikan tekana darah ke normal.
- Jika tekanan darah menurun, ginjal akan mengurangi pembuangan garam dan air, sehingga volume darah bertambah dan tekanan darah kembali ke normal.
- Ginjal juga bisa meningkatkan tekanan darah dengan menghasilkan enzim yang disebut renin, yang memicu pembentukan hormon angiotensi, yang selanjutnya akan memicu pelepasan hormon aldosteron.

Ginjal merupakan organ penting dalam mengendalikan tekanan darah; karena itu berbagai penyakit dan kelainan pda ginjal bisa menyebabkan terjadinya tekanan darah tinggi.
Misalnya penyempitan arteri yang menuju ke salah satu ginjal (stenosis arteri renalis) bisa menyebabkan hipertensi.
Peradangan dan cedera pada salah satu atau kedua ginjal juga bisa menyebabkan naiknya tekanan darah.

2. Sistem saraf simpatis merupakan bagian dari sistem saraf otonom, yang untuk sementara waktu akan:
- meningkatkan tekanan darah selama respon fight-or-flight (reaksi fisik tubuh terhadap ancaman dari luar)
- meningkatkan kecepatan dan kekuatan denyut jantung; juga mempersempit sebagian besar arteriola, tetapi memperlebar arteriola di daerah tertentu (misalnya otot rangka, yang memerlukan pasokan darah yang lebih banyak)
- mengurangi pembuangan air dan garam oleh ginjal, sehingga akan meningkatkan volume darah dalam tubuh
- melepaskan hormon epinefrin (adrenalin) dan norepinefrin (noradrenalin), yang merangsang jantung dan pembuluh darah.

PENYEBAB
Pada sekitar 90% penderita hipertensi, penyebabnya tidak diketahui dan keadaan ini dikenal sebagai hipertensi esensial atau hipertensi primer.
Hipertensi esensial kemungkinan memiliki banyak penyebab; beberapa perubahan pada jantung dan pembuluh darah kemungkinan bersama-sama menyebabkan meningkatnya tekanan darah.

Jika penyebabnya diketahui, maka disebut hipertensi sekunder.
Pada sekitar 5-10% penderita hipertensi, penyebabnya adalah penyakit ginjal.
Pada sekitar 1-2%, penyebabnya adalah kelainan hormonal atau pemakaian obat tertentu (misalnya pil KB).

Penyebab hipertensi lainnya yang jarang adalah feokromositoma, yaitu tumor pada kelenjar adrenal yang menghasilkan hormon epinefrin (adrenalin) atau norepinefrin (noradrenalin).

Kegemukan (obesitas), gaya hidup yang tidak aktif (malas berolah raga), stres, alkohol atau garam dalam makanan; bisa memicu terjadinya hipertensi pada orang-orang memiliki kepekaan yang diturunkan.
Stres cenderung menyebabkan kenaikan tekanan darah untuk sementara waktu, jika stres telah berlalu, maka tekanan darah biasanya akan kembali normal.

Beberapa penyebab terjadinya hipertensi sekunder:

1. Penyakit Ginjal
- Stenosis arteri renalis
- Pielonefritis
- Glomerulonefritis
- Tumor-tumor ginjal
- Penyakit ginjal polikista (biasanya diturunkan)
- Trauma pada ginjal (luka yang mengenai ginjal)
- Terapi penyinaran yang mengenai ginjal

2. Kelainan Hormonal
- Hiperaldosteronisme
- Sindroma Cushing
- Feokromositoma

3. Obat-obatan
- Pil KB
- Kortikosteroid
- Siklosporin
- Eritropoietin
- Kokain
- Penyalahgunaan alkohol
- Kayu manis (dalam jumlah sangat besar)

4. Penyebab Lainnya
- Koartasio aorta
- Preeklamsi pada kehamilan
- Porfiria intermiten akut
- Keracunan timbal akut.

GEJALA

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